• A

    APC - (Advanced Process Control) is a computerized manufacturing process control system in place in the Gdańsk refinery since 2001. APC simultaneously controls a large number of technological process parameters at the industrial plant. With the help of this system, one can optimize the plant operations, increasing the yield of the desired products, and keep the plant working safely

    Atmospheric distillation - a physicochemical process used to separate component products of a mixture, using differences in the boiling point temperatures of individual components. In the process of atmospheric distillation, individual fractions of gases, benzene, paraffin and diesel oils become separated. Atmospheric distillation is a process carried out at a pressure close to atmospheric pressure

  • B

    B100 - a determination of fuels produced solely from a biocomponent

    B3 Oil Field - a marine natural gas and oil field located about 73 km north of Rozewie. In operation since 1992, it hosts the Marine Oil Mine (Morska Kopalnia Ropy). At the moment, it is the main source of crude oil extracted by Petrobaltic S.A.

    B8 Oil Field - a marine natural gas and oil field located about 68 km northeast of Rozewie.

    Barrel - a primary unit of measurement used in crude oil production. One barrel contains 159 litres

    Base oil - unrefined oil, without improvers, obtained in the processing of crude oil. It represents the base raw material in the manufacture of lubricant oils

    Benzene izomerization - a refining process that leads to increasing the octane number of a gasoline fraction by changing the chemical structure of particles

    Biocomponent - an additive used in fuel production made in biomass processing

    Biofuel - a fuel manufactured by adding more than 5% biocomponents to gasoline or diesel oil

  • C

    CD Process - (Connemann Diesel Process) a manufacturing process of fatty acid methyl esters used at the LOTOS Biopaliwa installation located in Czechowice-Dziedzice


    CDU/VDU - a basic installation system used for crude oil processing comprising a Crude Distillation Unit and Vacuum Distillation Unit

    CNHT - a Coker Naphtha Hydrotreating Unit

    Component for bitumen production - usually a heavy vacuum distillate fraction obtained from crude oil, which can be further processed at the installation for bitumen manufacture

    CONCAWE - (CONservation of Clean Air and Water in Europe) a non-profit organization of most refining manufacturers operating in Europe. The main aim of CONCAWE is to examine the impact of the refining business on the natural environment

    Conversion - conversion processes usually involve technological cracking processes. In such processes, components with high boiling temperatures (heavy distillates) are used to manufacture light products used for fuel production. The most common conversion processes are thermal cracking, catalytic cracking and hydrocracking

    Crack - a refining margin

    CS-LF - a Coke Storage and Loading Facilities

  • D

    DAO - (De-Asphalted Oil) oil produced with an SDA installation used as a raw material for further refining. It may be the basis for producing base oils or an input for a cracking process

    DCU - a Delayed Coker Unit

  • E

    Etanol - ethyl alcohol used e.g. as a biocomponent for producing fuels and biofuels used in cars with ignition engines

    ETBE - (Ethyl Tert-Butyl Ether) a high-octane biocomponent used in gasoline production. It is manufactured in petrochemical complexes with ethanol and isobutylene

  • F

    FAME - (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) a biocomponent used to manufacture fuels and biofuels for diesel engine vehicles. FAME is manufactured by the transesterification of oil with methanol in the presence of a catalyst

    FAME - (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) a biocomponent used to manufacture fuels and biofuels for diesel engine vehicles. FAME is manufactured by the transesterification of oil with methanol in the presence of a catalyst

    Forties Blend - a type of crude oil from the North Sea. Fortis Blend is light petroleum with a low content of sulphur and a high potential in gasoline production

    Furfurol extraction - a technology applied to increase the quality of base mineral oils. During the process, unfavourable aromatic hydrocarbons are separated, which increases the so-called viscosity index

  • G

    Gasoline reforming - a refining process that involves a reaction with a catalyst creating high-octane aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrogen

    General nitrogen - the content of nitrogen for nitrogen being a part of all possible chemical forms

  • H

    HDS - (Hydrodesuplhurization Diesel Unit) a system for the hydrodesulphurization of diesel oils

    Heavy heating oil - an oily liquid representing a residue from the distillation of crude oil. Heavy heating oil finds its use in industrial installations of large manufacturing or processing facilities, as well as in combined power plants. It is also used as bunker fuel for ships

    HGU - (Hydrogen Generation Unit) a system for hydrogen production

    HVDU - a Hydrowax Vacuum Destilation Unit

    Hydrocomplex installation - a project of developing the Glimar Refinery in Gorlice. According to plans, the hydrocomplex was to consist of a line of core installations, i.e. hydrocracking, hydroparaffining and hydrorefining, as well as a number of auxiliary systems, including a hydrogen production plant. The aim of the hydrocomplex construction was to provide the Glimar Refinery with the capacity of producing high quality fuel products and base oils. On 19 January 2005, Glimar Nafta Refinery announced its bankruptcy, resulting in the discontinuation of work on this investment

    Hydrocracking - a refining process used to produce high quality fuel components during the reaction of vacuum distillates and hydrogen with a catalyst. Hydrocracking processes usually take place at very high pressure and provide components that are free of sulphur and contaminations

    Hydrorefining - (of slack wax) a process of purifying paraffin during the reaction with hydrogen in a catalyst

  • J

    Jet A1 - aviation fuel for jet and turbine engines

  • K

    KAS - an amine-sulphur complex of installations for purifying the refining gases of hydrogen sulphide and for the production of liquid sulphur

  • L

    Light heating oil - a product obtained in crude oil processing characterized by lower sulphur content and density than heavy heating oil. LHO is mainly used in household boiler rooms, in SMEs and institutions. It is also successfully used as the heating fuel in the boiler rooms of residential estates

    LPG - a liquefied gas, being a mixture of propane and butane, obtained in the processing of crude oil. Among its other applications, LPG is used as engine fuel or as fuel for household gas stoves

    LPG amine washing installation - a system for removing sulphur from liquid gas fractions in the form of hydrogen sulphide

    LPGTU - a LPG Treating Unit

    Lubricant oil - a composition of base oil and improvers. The quantity, type and relative proportions of these components are decisive for the class of the oil manufactured. Their main task is to reduce friction between the surfaces of the movable parts of mechanical devices that touch each other and work together. Lubricant oils are used in the automotive industry and for industrial applications

  • M

    MHC (Mild Hydrocracking) - a hydrocracking installation that operates in slightly milder conditions than a standard hydrocracking system

    Modified asphalts

    Modified asphalts - asphalts characterized by improved quality parameters, thanks to the interaction between asphalt and an applied modifier

    MTBE - (Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether) a high-octane component used for gasoline production. Unlike ETBE, it is not a biocomponent

  • N

    Naphtha - a fluid fraction of crude oil composed of hydrocarbons whose particles contain 9-16 atoms of carbon. Naphtha can be processed into aviation fuel and diesel oils

    National Index Aim - a minimum share of biocomponents in the total volume of liquid fuels and liquid biofuels used during a calendar year in transport, calculated according to the caloric value

    Natural gasoline gas - natural gas that contains, apart from methane and ethane, some quantities of heavier hydrocarbons

  • O

    OGU - an Oxygen Generation Unit

    Oil transesterification - a chemical reaction resulting in the formation of fatty acid methyl esters. The transesterification reaction of oils is a reaction of oil with methanol in the presence of a catalyst

    Own petrol station - stations owned by LOTOS Paliwa, run by external personnel

  • P

    Paraffin - a mixture of solid saturated hydrocarbons, separated from the fractions of crude oil. It is used, among others, to manufacture candles, floor polish and as an insulation material

    Partner petrol stations - stations that operate under the LOTOS brand under a commercial partnership based on a long-term franchise agreement

    Patronage petrol stations - stations that operate under the flag of the former Gdańsk refinery on the basis of a patronage agreement

    Plasticizers - plasticizing improvers added to polymer products. Grupa LOTOS S.A. manufactures hydrocarbon plasticizers for the rubber industry

    Ppm - (parts per million) a popular measuring method used to express the concentration of extremely diluted solutions of chemical compounds. This measure tells how many particles of a chemical compound are to be found among one million particles of the solution

  • R

    REACH - Regulation of the European Parliament and the European Council concerning the safe application of chemicals through their registration and assessment and in some cases granting commercial permits and restrictions as regards the application. It came into force on 1 June 2007 and replaces several dozen previous community legal acts, both regulations and directives introduced into Polish legislation with the Act of 11 January 2001 on chemical substances and preparations

    REBCO - (Russian Export Blend Crude Oil) a commercial name of Russian crude oil from the Ural

    ROSE - (Residual Oil Supercritical Extraction) a technology used at Gdańsk refinery in the SDA installation under construction

  • S

    SDA - (Solvent Deasphalting) an installation used to separate vacuum remnants after crude oil processing into lighter fractions, i.e. deasphalted oil (DAO) and heavier fractions, namely bitumen components

    Slack wax - a semi-product received in crude oil processing. It is used to produce wax

  • T

    Troll Blend - a type of crude oil from the North Sea. The Troll Blend is an average crude oil with a low sulphur content and a high potential within the production of diesel oils

  • V

    Vacuum distillate - a fraction of hydrocarbons separated from a more complex mixture with distillation under a reduced atmospheric pressure. Vacuum distillates produced from crude oil are usually used to produce base oil, and also as input for cracking processes

    Vacuum distillation - a process analogical to the process of atmospheric distillation, conducted, however, at a reduced ambient pressure. It uses a physical property, whereby the boiling point decreases as the ambient pressure is reduced. It makes it possible to separate vacuum distillates in the atmospheric residuals. Heavy remnants of the distillation process are so-called vacuum residuals